The principle of autonomy in health care essay

Re engineering Health Care How does the nurse manager or leader play a role in the re engineering of health care? Choices such as whether to indulge in gossip breaching confidentiality or driving too fast on the highway are examples of these decisions. Making good ethical and legal decisions in nursing management or leadership practice requires understanding of the underlying principles and incorporating that knowledge into the decision-making process. Ethical decision-making is similar to other decision-making processes in that it requires the manager to gather information, identify the problem, generate alternatives, or select an alternative to implement, and evaluate the results.

The History of Autonomy a. Before Kant The roots of autonomy as self-determination can be found in ancient Greek philosophy, in the idea of self-mastery.

A just soul, for Plato, is one in which this rational human part governs over the two others. Plato and Aristotle also both associate the ideal for humanity with self-sufficiency and a lack of dependency on others.

For Aristotle, self-sufficiency, or autarkeia, is an essential ingredient of happiness, and involves a lack of dependence upon external conditions for happiness.

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The best human will be one who is ruled by reason, and is not dependent upon others for his or her happiness. This ideal continues through Stoic philosophy and can be seen in the early modern philosophy of Spinoza.

The concept of autonomy itself continued to develop in the modern period with the decrease of religious authority and the increase of political liberty and emphasis on individual reason.

The former he called heteronomy; the latter autonomy. In acting we are guided by maxims, which are the subjective principles by which we might personally choose to abide. Each moral agent, then, is to be seen as a lawgiver in a community where others are also lawgivers in their own right, and hence are to be respected as ends in themselves; Kant calls this community the kingdom of ends.

While the will is supposed to be autonomous, for Kant, it is also not supposed to be arbitrary or particularistic in its determinations.

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Feelings, emotions, habits, and other non-intellectual factors are excluded from autonomous decision-making. Any circumstances that particularize us are also excluded from autonomous decision-making. All empirical aspects of our selfhood — all aspects of our experience — are part of the phenomenal self, and subject to the deterministic laws of natural causality.

Our freedom, on the other hand, cannot be perceived or understood; rather we must posit the freedom of the will as the basis for our ability to act morally. Further, the majority of contemporary theories of personal autonomy are content-neutral accounts of autonomy which are unconcerned with whether or not a person is acting according to moral laws; they focus more on determining whether or not a person is acting for his or her own reasons than on putting any restrictions on autonomous action.

The Romantic conception of individuality was then echoed within the conception of authenticity that runs through phenomenological and existential philosophy. This conception of authenticity became intertwined with the idea of autonomy: This division is still present in the contrast between conceiving of autonomy as a key feature of moral motivation, and autonomy as self-expression and development of individual practical identity.

The principle of autonomy in health care essay

He argues for the value of heteronomy over autonomy. The self is hence not self-legislating, but is determined by the call of the other. This criticism of the basic structure of autonomy has been taken up within continental ethics, which attempts to determine how or whether a practical, normative ethics could be developed within this framework see for example Critchley Introduction.

The principle of autonomy in health care essay

In developing countries, overpopulation is considered to be one of the most basic causes of underdevelopment. Third world countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America are now dealing with this acute problem, which tends to nullify most of the efforts to encourage development.

John Stuart Mill (–) was the most famous and influential British philosopher of the nineteenth century. He was one of the last systematic philosophers, making significant contributions in logic, metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and social theory.

In , Congress enacted the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in order to increase the number of Americans covered by health insurance and decrease the cost of health care.


The Fallacies of Egoism and Altruism, and the Fundamental Principle of Morality (after Kant and Nelson) I have not done wrong.

The "Negative Confession" or Protestation of Ani, The Egyptian Book of the Dead, The Book of Going Forth by Day, The Complete Papyrus of Ani, Featuring Integrated Text and Full-Color Images, translated by Dr. Raymond O. Faulkner [, , Chronicle Books, San. 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. Autonomy versus shame and doubt is the second stage of Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development.

This stage occurs between the ages of 18 months to approximately 3 years. Vaccinations: Vaccines Should Be Mandatory For All People - Vaccinations are designed to help people go through their everyday life. A country doctor, Edward Jenner, who lived in Berkeley, England, first administered vaccines in (Health Affairs).

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