Paper with legible Chinese writings on it has been dated to 8 BCE, . The traditional inventor attribution is of Cai Lunan official attached to the Imperial court during the Han Dynasty BCE CEsaid to have invented paper about CE using mulberry and other bast fibres along with fishnets, old rags, and hemp waste.
Excerpt from Term Paper: Wilson, Fences August Wilson's Fences allows the ordinary objects of domestic life to acquire a larger symbolic significance in their dramatic use. The play uses these symbols to dramatize a crucial moment in African-American history: In presenting the story of Troy Maxson, Wilson's story predominantly dramatizes a story about justice: The chief symbol that encapsulates the play's central themes of justice is, of course, baseball.
Troy Maxson -- in his fifties at the time of the play -- is presented as having been a magnificent baseball player in his youth: Troy's friend Bono suggests only "two men ever played baseball as good as you.
That's Babe Ruth and Josh Gibson. Wilson, however, is relying upon an audience to know the crucial role in which baseball in the American mid-century played out the public drama of African-American civil rights.
For a start, the fact that Babe Ruth's name remains more famous than Josh Gibson reminds the audience that baseball was a segregated sport, with separate playing leagues for black Americans. For an audience to know who Josh Gibson was would require knowledge of the best players in baseball's so-called "negro leagues.
Jackie Robinson's example is, of course, popularly regarded as an example of long-delayed justice for African-Americans, as it was dramatized very recently in the Hollywood film However, Wilson crucially does not use Jackie Robinson as a symbol for justice, but as a vehicle whereby Troy Maxson can argue about the limitations of justice: I done seen a hundred niggers play baseball better than Jackie Robinson.
Hell, I know some teams Jackie Robinson couldn't even make!
What you talking about Jackie Robinson. Jackie Robinson wasn't nobody. I'm talking about if you could play ball then they ought to have let you play. Don't care what color you were. Come telling me I come along too early.
If you could play…then they ought to have let you play. TROY takes a long drink from the bottle. Wilson 10 Troy's trash-talking about Jackie Robinson here is well within his characterization in the play, with its levels of self-aggrandizement and provocative tale-telling, but Wilson is making a crucial point here.
Jackie Robinson's breaking of the color line in baseball came too late for a man of Troy's age. Troy cannot relate to the younger athlete's increased opportunities with a sense of solidarity or vicarious joy: This is a play that wants to make it clear that the advent of civil rights for blacks did not have some miraculous effect on black Americans, overwhelming them with gratitude.
In reality, the astonishingly belated concession of these civil rights by white America is more likely to provoke Troy's mix of resentment, frustration, and anger.
There is not much for Troy to do here apart from state the obvious truth, and then have another drink. This is why football also becomes a crucial symbol in the play, related to baseball -- part of the importance of football here is that Wilson is dramatizing history itself.
The centrality of football to American life is something that would emerge after the action of the play -- the action of Fences takes place between androughly, while the first Super Bowl would not occur until Football, in other words, is not a sport in which there were ever negro leagues, and it would overtake baseball as the most popular sport in America -- and one in which a preponderance of players were black -- at around the time of Troy Maxson's death.
As a result, football stands out as a symbol of the future that Troy will never get to experience -- and his refusal to sign the papers giving permission for his son Cory to be recruited for a football scholarship shows the suprising way in which injustice perpetuates itself.
White America has been unjust to Troy Maxson -- Troy will turn around and be unjust in turn to his own son, falsely extrapolating from his own experience.
It is Cory's own black father who will insist he "quit the football team. You've got to take the crookeds with the straights" Wilson But we are meant to understand this as the resentment of a man who was forced by society to "take the crookeds" and insists upon inflicting "the crookeds" on his own family at a moment when society seems to be realigning itself more towards justice.
However the most overtly symbolic aspect of the play is also the one which most clearly connects the purpose of Wilson's symbolism to ideas of justice.
This is Troy's war-wounded brother Gabe, whose traumatic brain injury has left him with the delusion that he is the embodiment of the Archangel Gabriel on earth: In religious symbolism, Gabriel's trumpet sounds to announce the Last Judgment -- in other words, the moment when a perfect divine justice intervenes on earth, and presumably rights all wrongs eternally.In Fences, written by August Wilson, the ugly side of Troy’s upbringing is shown throughout the play to bring light upon the personal struggles of Troy and the consequences it has on his family.
Sep 22, · Denzel Washington starred in the Broadway revival of Fences, and now he’s revisiting the story for an upcoming film adaptation that he . Join now to read essay Paper on the Book, Fences. Essay On Fences We all lead lives filled with anxiety over certain issues, and with dread of the inevitable day of our death.
In this play, Fences which was written by the well known playwright, August Wilson, we have the story. Gabe states that he saw Troy’s name in St. Peter’s book, but that Rose’s name is on another page.
(26) Explain the possible significance of Gabe’s words. just keep your notes minimalist even if it takes up more paper Ask questions Fences can affect you in different ways.
Test your knowledge of Fences with our quizzes and study questions, or go further with essays on the context and background and links to the best resources around the web. Jan 26, · “Here is a man that you can open yourself up to and be filled to bursting,” Rose Maxson says in August Wilson’s “Fences,” recalling her reaction to meeting her future husband, Troy.