Willingham What would you think if your child came home from school and reported that the language-arts lesson of the day included using twigs and leaves to spell words? The typical parent might react with curiosity tinged with suspicion:
And lately I have run into people who say: In the same way, talking about these metaphorical superintelligences is not a helpful contribution to discussion of literal superintelligences.
Why do I think that there is an important distinction between these kind of collective intelligences and genuine superintelligence? There is no number of chimpanzees which, when organized into a team, will become smart enough to learn to write.
There is no number of ordinary eight-year-olds who, when organized into a team, will become smart enough to beat a grandmaster in chess. There is no number of ordinary IQ 90 construction workers who, when organized into a team, will become smart enough to design and launch a space probe to one of the moons of Jupiter.
They can use computers to be able to calculate and retrieve information more quickly. They can pool their advantages, so that if one person is good at writing and another person good at illustration, they can produce a well-written and beautifully-illustrated Multiple intelligences curriculum implications.
They can formalize their decision-making processes to route around various biases and react consistently to predictable situations. A team of people smart enough to solve problems up to Level N may be able to work in parallel to solve many more Level N problems in a given amount of time.
And unfortunately, this aspect of intelligence is the bottleneck for lots of interesting things like new inventions, proofs, and discoveries.
Further, teams themselves need intelligent people to run in an intelligent way.
Steve Jobs led Apple to success by being really really good at marketing. This is true not only at the Steve Jobs level but at every level — at some point a Sales Department needs to have good salespeople, not just many well-organized mediocre salespeople.
And finally, teams have a lot of contingent disadvantages over an individual. They work vastly more slowly. Their various parts tend not to know what the other parts are doing. If dictatorial in structure, they fall prey to failures of information; if non-dictatorial, to failures of coordination.
Imagine an individual human whose inner soul had Democratic and Republican parties that were constantly trying to sabotage each other, so that if the Democratic part of her got a job interview, the Republican part would immediately try to sabotage the job interview to prevent the Democrats from looking good.
Such a person would either be insane or at the very least not get too many jobs. And even if all of the contingent problems were magically solved, that still leaves the fundamental problem where no organization of chimpanzees will ever write a novel.
If we were to actually get superintelligence, that would be a completely different class of entity than another government or corporation.
I keep getting the same objection in the comments: But eight-year-olds could not come up with and implement this idea. And any computer programmer so brilliant that they could build a true superintelligence out of eight year olds could build a true superintelligence out of normal computers too.
Kasparov moved the white pieces, and the black moves were decided by popular vote on a website where various other grandmasters and chess buffs worked together to devise the best strategies.Multiple Intelligences Go to School Educational Implications of the Theory of Multiple Intelligences HOWARD GARDNER THOMAS HATCH A new approach to the conceptualization and assessment of human intelligences is de-.
Becoming a Multiple Intelligences School. by Thomas R. Hoerr. Table of Contents. Chapter 1. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences.
What began as a theory of intelligence, intended for psychologists, has become a tool that educators around the world seize with enthusiasm. State of Israel Ministry of Education Pedagogical Secretariat Language Dept.
English Inspectorate Revised English Curriculum (Divided into 70% and 30% for All Grade Levels).
This article reviews implications of Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences for higher education—responding to increased access, the necessity of meeting the needs of diverse users, and the.
(Also known as: Art on the Net) Join fellow artists in sharing art from the source, the artists themselves. We are Artists helping artists come online to the Internet and the WWWeb. Multiple Intelligences Theory Developed by Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner in and subsequently refined, this theory states there are at least seven ways ("intelligences") that people understand and perceive the world.