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Leadership Content No topic, probably, has been quite as exhaustively examined, studied, dissected, and discussed as leadership.
But much of the focus has been on how American businesses define leadership. What works in U. Housedirector of the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Research Program at the Wharton School, has spent the past ten years studying how different cultures throughout the world define leadership.
He and his colleagues have found that definitions and perceptions of leadership vary considerably from culture to culture. In the global business world, organizations and executives face a growing need to understand the subtleties and nuances of leadership as it is exercised in different cultures.
Over the past six years GLOBE has evolved into a multi-phase, multi-method research project in which some investigators from over 60 cultures representing all major regions of the world collaborate to examine the interrelationships among societal culture, organizational culture and practices and organizational leadership.
GLOBE has focused on universals and culture-based differences in perceived effectiveness of leadership attributes by asking middle managers whether certain leader characteristics and behaviors would help or hinder a person in becoming an outstanding leader. Phase II found that there are universally endorsed leader attributes.
In addition, the study also found that there are attributes that are universally seen as impediments to outstanding leadership.
The most important finding, however, is that there are culturally-contingent attributes that can help or hinder leadership. What is seen as a strength in one culture may be a considerable impediment in another culture.
These findings appear in a paper titled: Business is global, but each business organization has a culture shaped by the business it is in and the people who run the business.
Executives are themselves products of the unique cultures in which they have learned and conducted business. To see how cultures might come into play, we can easily imagine a situation in which a British executive who was trained at an American business school is asked to run the Argentine manufacturing facility of a Japanese firm.
What leadership attributes should this executive work to develop: This executive needs to understand the culture within which he works and how his employees perceive leadership.
An executive needs to develop bespoke leadership attributes, tailored to the unique culture within which he or she works.
A general description of a leader might be someone who is charismatic and seeks to develop a transformational style of leadership. In some cultures, one might need to take strong, decisive action in order to be seen as a leader, while in other cultures consultation and a democratic approach may be the preferred approach to exercising effective leadership.
Managerial practices and motivational techniques that are legitimate and acceptable in on culture may not be in another. There is concern in some cultures that people tend to lose their balance and perspective as a result of an excessive focus on achievement created by charismatic leaders.
Certainly the most notorious example of a charismatic leader is Hitler. Leaders are expected to have vision, but how this is displayed differs from culture to culture. In China, the influence of Confucian values make people wary of leaders who talk without engaging in specific action. Indian managers, on the other hand, care less about visionaries, preferring bold assertive styles of leadership.
Leaders are often thought to be risk- takers, but GLOBE found that risk taking is not universally valued as contributing to outstanding leadership. Communication skills are also important to the leader, but again, how these skills are perceived differs among and within cultures.
What constitutes a good communicator is likely to vary greatly across cultures. American managers are more likely to provide directions to subordinates on a face-to-face basis while Japanese managers are likely to use written memos.
These differences reflect the U. There are profound differences in the preferred use of language, as well as nonverbal cues. In many cultures, interrupting someone is considered to be impolite, while in most Latin cultures, interrupting conveys that one is interested in what the other person in saying.
In Asian cultures the pauses between speakers are often much longer than what we find in the West. Cultural differences are found as well in gestures, intonation, and the use of humor.
Certain charismatic attributes are perceived to be culturally contingent. These include enthusiasm, risk-taking, ambition, humility, sincerity, sensitivity, and compassion.Diversity Management Changing times, company reputation and customer demands have led to business practices in companies that profit and benefit from being seen as diverse.
Workforce diversity was first presented as an issue of equality by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). EEOC was established in and is. What is a Diversity Management? In recent years, diversity is increasingly perceived as an important issue in the context of business management.
This is due to the increasing differences in the population, globalization process, increasing of international business and cross borders business dealing activities. Diversity, Difference and Diversity Management: A Contextual and Interview Study of Managers and Ethnic Minority Employees in Finland and France Key words: diversity, difference, diversity management, ethnic minorities, discrimination.
Corporate Diversity. At Marriott, the foundation for diversity and inclusion is promoting “UNITY and Family.” Through UNITY, we create an inclusive environment that supports the recruitment, retention, and advancement of all employees, and actively engages in efforts to develop a diverse and inclusive workforce, owner, guest and supplier base.
Davie Construction Co. is committed to providing the highest quality construction and general contracting services with a focus on value engineering.
Aug 28, · Diversity management is a strategy that is intended to foster and maintain a positive workplace environment. Usually initiated by Human Resources professionals and managed by department heads and supervisors, an effective diversity management program will promote recognition and respect for the individual differences found among a.