Attention has begun to shift from local, short-term seasonal patterns of temperature, rainfall, other elements of the weather, toward longer-term trends that can affect the entire Earth, se long-term typically year weather trends are called "climate.
The Challenging Concept of Change Over Time Sharon Cohen One of the biggest challenges for students and teachers in world history is the concept of change over time.
Of course, the concept of change over time is essential to any study of the past, but change over time in world history often takes on the added dimensions of changes over longer periods of time and usually across more places as well.
These additional chronological and spatial dimensions are often next to impossible challenges for students trying to explain how larger global processes effected changes. The proof of these challenges is apparent in the work of students in many secondary and introductory college history courses.
For example, the History Learning Project undertaken by the Indiana University History Department revealed that their college students struggled to analyze historical context and preferred to let the "'facts' speak by themselves.
Over the past seven years, I have read thousands of APWH exams in which students consistently make the following types of errors on those change over time essays: With no explanation of how the situations were selected or how they relate to each other, this would be a weak statement indeed of global patterns: This intervention emphasized students creating annotated timelines on which they have to explain the connection between events and the global processes that affect them.
A article by Janet Alleman and Jere Brophy confirmed my experience that requiring students to construct and use annotated timelines generates student acceptance and analysis of the facts they put on the timeline.
He argued that timelines can be a "meaningful narrative into which present and future can be incorporated. Once I started to require students to make annotated timelines for every time period of the world history course, they mostly stopped making the typical mistakes found on the APWH exam essays.
However, after reading Epstein's work on how African-American students feel left out of some presentations of American history, 9 I began to wonder if the historical knowledge my students were creating with these annotated timelines contradicted other knowledge they gained outside the classroom.
I focused on two world history classes, of which about half were of African heritage. I asked the students to create individual lists of what they already knew about Africa I gave the instructions orally and projected them as well.
Finally, I asked them to organize their information on a timeline. I reminded them of the periodization we used for the course, but said they could create their own organization for the timeline as long as they had at least three time periods to avoid 'now and then' vagueness. The results matched Epstein's conclusions about the source of the students' knowledge; sixty-four percent of all students of African heritage and three Latinos listed home as one of their sources of knowledge about Africa, but none of the other Latinos, or students of Asian or European heritage did.
This data seemed to confirm that, in the United States, students of African heritage usually gain some knowledge of their history from home. Since that knowledge matched what we had also discussed at school e.
Africa as the origin of humansI was reassured that contradictions between home and school would not impede my students' acceptance and understanding of world history.
I then analyzed how much popular culture and the media affected the type of knowledge the students reported. It seemed likely from studies done by Seixas 11 and Wineburg 12 that films would be a major source of information and might affect the type of information the students claim to know.
In fact, twelve students of my students listed the films Blood Diamonds and Hotel Rwanda as sources of information about forced labor in diamond mines in Sierra Leone and the genocide in Rwanda respectively. About half of the fifty students also listed learning about the HIV epidemic and poverty in Africa from television or the internet, and twenty-six cited television as a main source of geographical facts about Africa.
On the other hand, all but four of the students listed school as the source of their general information about ancient Egypt, the spread of Islam, the slave trade, and colonization.
I concluded that they could remember and count as knowledge what they had learned from the media as well as school.
The most remarkable result from this exercise was that about a third of the students added more information to their lists once they began to make their timelines.
This made me consider the possibility that all of the work we had done with annotated timelines perhaps resulted in the timeline becoming an unconscious tool to recall facts they had otherwise not remembered in the initial five minutes I gave them to write their lists.
The concept of change over time is extremely challenging for students to display fully in their writing about world history. This brief survey of some of the scholarship on teaching the concept of change over time along with the small research I did in my own classroom seem to point to two possible solutions.
First, as teachers we should help students reveal their prior knowledge of topics to acknowledge that our students enter our classrooms with some ideas learned at home or through various media.
Second, to encourage recall and analysis of key changes, we should expand our use of annotated timelines, so that students have some schema or method to incorporate new knowledge about historical topics.The course of Hunter syndrome is well documented and follows a very regular pattern in most afflicted children; the results for patients who got the experimental therapy could easily have been compared against readily available historical databases that track the normal course of the disease.
Why choose this course? In a rapidly changing world, from Brexit to Trump, our modern, globally-focused history degree enables you to explore how the past shapes the present. Quest for Identity in The Life of Galileo by Brecht Throughout the course of history, from era to era, mankind has been on a continuous attempt to perpetuate what they perceive as the truth; and in doing so, embark on a quest to find their true identity and place in life.
As Arthur Koestler wrote in the mids, "All decisive events in the history of scientific thought can be described in terms of mental cross-fertilization between different disciplines." The same has often been true of American life.
The life course approach, also known as the life course perspective or life course theory, refers to an approach developed in the s for analyzing people's lives within structural, social, and cultural contexts.
The origins of this approach can be traced back to pioneering studies of the s such as Thomas' and Znaniecki's "The Polish Peasant in Europe and America" and Mannheim's essay .
based essay question included on the Global History and Geography Regents examination. Thematic essays require students to write indepth about one of the themes identified in the global history and geography section of the Social.