Center for international and development economics research cider working papers

However, although Engels wrote in the s, his book was not translated into English until the late s, and his expression did not enter everyday language until then. Credit for popularising the term may be given to Arnold Toynbeewhose lectures gave a detailed account of the term.

Center for international and development economics research cider working papers

However, although Engels wrote in the s, his book was not translated into English until the late s, and his expression did not enter everyday language until then.

Credit for popularising the term may be given to Arnold Toynbeewhose lectures gave a detailed account of the term. This is still a subject of debate among some historians. Important technological developments The commencement of the Industrial Revolution is closely linked to a small number of innovations, [24] beginning in the second half of the 18th century.

By the s the following gains had been made in important technologies: Textiles — mechanised cotton spinning powered by steam or water increased the output of a worker by a factor of around The power loom increased the output of a worker by a factor of over The adaptation of stationary steam engines to rotary motion made them suitable for industrial uses.

Iron making — the substitution of coke for charcoal greatly lowered the fuel cost of pig iron and wrought iron production. The steam engine began being used to pump water to power blast air in the mid s, enabling a large increase in iron production by overcoming the limitation of water power.

It was later improved by making it double acting, which allowed higher blast furnace temperatures.

Center for international and development economics research cider working papers

The puddling process produced a structural grade iron at a lower cost than the finery forge. Hot blast greatly increased fuel efficiency in iron production in the following decades. Invention of machine tools — The first machine tools were invented. These included the screw cutting lathecylinder boring machine and the milling machine.

Machine tools made the economical manufacture of precision metal parts possible, although it took several decades to develop effective techniques. Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution British textile industry statistics In Britain imported 2.

The work was done by hand in workers' homes or occasionally in shops of master weavers. In raw cotton consumption was 22 million pounds, most of which was cleaned, carded and spun on machines. Value added by the British woollen industry was Cotton factories in Britain numbered approximately in In approximately one-third of cotton cloth manufactured in Britain was exported, rising to two-thirds by In cotton spun amounted to 5.

In less than 0. In there were 50, spindles in Britain, rising to 7 million over the next 30 years. In tropical and subtropical regions where it was grown, most was grown by small farmers alongside their food crops and was spun and woven in households, largely for domestic consumption.

In the 15th century China began to require households to pay part of their taxes in cotton cloth. By the 17th century almost all Chinese wore cotton clothing. Almost everywhere cotton cloth could be used as a medium of exchange.

Industrial Revolution - Wikipedia

In India a significant amount of cotton textiles were manufactured for distant markets, often produced by professional weavers. Some merchants also owned small weaving workshops. India produced a variety of cotton cloth, some of exceptionally fine quality.

Sea island cotton grew in tropical areas and on barrier islands of Georgia and South Carolina, but did poorly inland. Sea island cotton began being exported from Barbados in the s. Upland green seeded cotton grew well on inland areas of the southern U. The Age of Discovery was followed by a period of colonialism beginning around the 16th century.

Following the discovery of a trade route to India around southern Africa by the Portuguese, the Dutch established the Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie abbr. VOC or Dutch East India Company and the British founded the East India Companyalong with smaller companies of different nationalities which established trading posts and employed agents to engage in trade throughout the Indian Ocean region and between the Indian Ocean region and North Atlantic Europe.

One of the largest segments of this trade was in cotton textiles, which were purchased in India and sold in Southeast Asia, including the Indonesian archipelago, where spices were purchased for sale to Southeast Asia and Europe. By the mids cloth was over three-quarters of the East India Company's exports.

Indian textiles were in demand in North Atlantic region of Europe where previously only wool and linen were available; however, the amount of cotton goods consumed in Western Europe was minor until the early 19th century. Earlier European attempts at cotton spinning and weaving were in 12th century Italy and 15th century southern Germany, but these industries eventually ended when the supply of cotton was cut off.

The Moors in Spain grew, spun and wove cotton beginning around the 10th century. Occasionally the work was done in the workshop of a master weaver. Under the putting-out system, home-based workers produced under contract to merchant sellers, who often supplied the raw materials.Contains the electronic versions of 80 books previously published in hard copy as part of the Country Studies Series by the Federal Research Division.

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